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Data Privacy Laws in the United States


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Data privacy is a critical issue in today's digital age, and the United States has a complex legal landscape when it comes to protecting personal data. There is no single law that covers all aspects of data privacy. Instead, various regulations with acronyms such as HIPAA, FCRA, FERPA, GLBA, ECPA, COPPA, and VPPA exist to address specific categories of data and unique situations.

The Privacy Act of 1974

The Privacy Act of 1974 was enacted by the federal government to protect the privacy of citizens' personal information. The law sets guidelines for how government entities can gather, use, and disclose personal data. Under this act, individuals have the following rights:

  • The right to request access and correction of their data

  • The right to access their data (with certain restrictions)

  • The right to information about how their data is being used

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)

HIPAA, enacted in 1996, provides legal protection for people's medical information. Healthcare providers, hospitals, insurance companies, and other businesses that handle protected health information (PHI) are subject to HIPAA regulations. For purposes such as treatment and payment, covered entities can use patient data, but they must first obtain the patient's consent for marketing activities. Patients have the right to request limitations on how their personal data is used and shared and to correct any inaccuracies in their medical records.

Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)

COPPA was passed in 1998 to protect the online privacy of children under the age of 13. Websites and online services that collect, process, or disseminate personal data from children must comply with COPPA. The act requires these services to:


  • Post a concise privacy statement detailing what data is collected, how it is used, and when it is disclosed to third parties

  • Obtain parental consent before collecting, using, or disclosing children's personal information

  • Allow parents to review and delete their child's personal information


Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA)

The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) was signed into law in 1999 to protect consumer privacy and applies to any financial institution that collects, uses, or discloses personal information. Financial institutions must:


  • Explain their information-sharing practices to customers and allow them to opt out of having their data shared with third parties.

  • Follow established guidelines for collecting, using, and protecting customer data, including information collected online.

  • Develop and implement a written information security program to protect customer data from unauthorized access.

Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA)

The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) protects the information in credit reports by placing restrictions on who can access them, what data credit agencies can collect, and how information is acquired.

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)


FERPA specifies who may access student educational records, granting the right to view records kept by schools to parents, qualified students, and other schools.

Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA)


The Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) limits the government's ability to monitor phone calls and other electronic communications. However, the act has been criticized for being outdated, as it was enacted in 1986 before the widespread use of the internet. The ECPA is not immune to contemporary surveillance techniques, including law enforcement access to older material held on servers and in cloud storage files and search queries.

Video Privacy Protection Act (VPPA)


The Video Privacy Protection Act (VPPA) prohibits the sharing of VHS rental records. Although it was enacted in 1988, the VPPA was amended in 2013 to include digital video providers and protect the privacy of customers' video viewing information. Under the VPPA, video providers must obtain customer consent before sharing their video viewing history with third parties.


In conclusion, the legal landscape of data privacy in the United States is complex, with various regulations addressing different categories of data and situations. Understanding these laws and how they apply to your business or personal data is crucial for protecting privacy rights and ensuring compliance. With technology constantly advancing, it is important for individuals and companies to stay informed on changes and updates in data privacy regulations.

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